Born in India , yoga is a discipline that aims, through physical exercises, meditation and ascetic morality , to unify the body and mind. Relatively new in the West, there has in recent years an unprecedented success , thanks to the plebiscite many stars.
Its origin and philosophy
Yoga is not new : it was already practiced in India , to the third millennium BC . Yoga also means "union" in Sanskrit ( the ancient literary language of India).
However, it is in the 4th century BC that Patanjali , considered the father of the discipline, wrote the Yoga Sutra text reference discipline. There are other details between the 8 aspects - he compares the branches of a tree - forming yoga :
-Yama , the ability to communicate with non-violence
- Niyama , adherence to self-
- Asana , the practice of postures
Pranayama - control of breathing
- Pratyahara , sensory inner listening
- Dharana , concentration
- Dhyana , meditation
- Samadhi , the release , the final stage of self-realization
The first five aspects form the basis of hatha yoga, a discipline in itself promotes the health and concentration by lifestyle and postures.
The "sport" discipline hatha yoga
The vast majority of yoga mainly concern the physical dimension , that is to say, hatha yoga. In the traditional way , to keep the body in an optimal state of health and discipline the mind it is aimed . It revolves around three main tools:
- Postures . The plow to the boat through the half moon, there are more than 1000 . Static or dynamic ( sequences as the famous sun salutation ), they are still without force , in respect of the body, paying particular attention to body positioning and alignment of the spine .
- The breathing exercises. Inseparable from the practice of postures , they revolve around four main phases of respiration : inspiration, lungs full retention , exhalation and retention lungs empty . During a yoga class , and there are different ways of breathing : focusing on one or the other of these phases , adopting a slow or fast pace , breathing through one nostril , both nostrils , or alternating nostrils , producing or not sound , inspiring or breathing more or less time .
- Relaxation . This phase, which usually concludes the session is accomplished by sitting or lying position. It is accompanied by a slow, deep breath, suggestions, or very soft sounds.
- The first advantage of ( hatha ) yoga is that it is feasible for everyone, men or women, young or old, healthy or not. Devoid of competition , it does not require special skills depends largely on the commitment , concentration and perseverance that makes everyone realize postures and sequences and . Moreover , although it is inscribed at the base in a spiritual practice , it requires absolutely no special philosophical or religious knowledge.
- Then it has many benefits for the body : muscle toning , flexibility, balance, strengthening the abdominal area , reduced fat ...
- It also improves overall health : elimination of toxins, stimulate vital organs (digestive , respiratory, sexual ... ) , improved cardiac function and endurance ...
- Thanks to the concentration and determination it requires , he finally plays an essential role in the mind. Stress and anxiety gradually fade , you feel after a few sessions a deep well -being affects the activities of daily life and relationships with others.
Discipline , teaching
With its success , hatha yoga is constantly evolving . Although the postures and sequences remain unchanged , there are more and more different teachings of yoga that each combine postures, breathing exercises and meditation in a more or less strong or soft , animated and calm. The most common are the ashtanga yoga ( synchronizing breathing with rapid sequences of postures increasingly demanding ) , the integral yoga (balancing postures, breathing, meditation and relaxation) , the viniyoga ( integration of movement with breathing ) , prenatal yoga (suitable for pregnant women) , the bikhram yoga ( practiced in a room heated to 40 degrees ) ...
There is not , strictly speaking French federation yoga, just like a French tennis federation or volleyball . As for the training of teachers , it is still unclear , poorly regulated : it does not exist, for example, state diploma .
The ideal is to take place in a gym , in a municipality or a framed structure , often sort their teachers on the panel.
Moreover, nothing like word-of -mouth and the experience to get an idea before making any entry , the ideal is to learn about yourself and , if possible, a test - even several free - sessions to get an idea .